Saturday, July 13, 2013

Quick Tips to Boost Your Metabolism

There are a lot of people who would give a lot to increase their metabolism. Having a high level of metabolism enables one to maintain burn fat and lose weight fast with the least amount of activity. Metabolism is the rate by which the body produces and consumes energy and calories to support life.

There are several factors that affect the metabolism of a person, such as the amount of muscle tissue, the frequency of the meals one consumes, genetics, stress levels, personal diet and activity levels. Metabolism slows done due to the following: loss of muscle because of not enough physical activity, the tendency of the body to cannibalize its own tissue because there is not enough food energy to sustain it, and the decrease of physical activity that comes naturally with old age.

Here are several ways to fire up one's metabolism:

1. Build up on lean, mean body mass. It is only natural that metabolism decreases along with age, but it is possible to counter the effects. The amount of muscle a person has is a very strong determinant in the ability to burn calories and shed fat. So it goes without saying that exercise is essential. Build strength and resistance by working out at least twice a week, preferably with weights. Do easy exercises in between workouts. Simple tasks such as walking the dog and using the stairs in place of the elevator can already take off calories. The key is to match the amount of eating to the amount of activity one has. Here are some guidelines in getting the right exercise:

For strength training

-Increase the amount of repetitions of a particular exercise.
-Add the level of resistance
-Utilize advance exercise techniques if possible

For cardiovascular training

-Insert intervals between exercises
-Perform cross-training and combine the exercises
-Add up on resistance and speed

2. Eat breakfast. A lot of people are ignoring the fact that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Surprisingly, the ones who eat breakfast are thinner than the ones who do not. Metabolism can slow down considerably if breakfast is taken during mid-morning or if one waits until the afternoon to eat.

3. Avoid sugar. Sugar enables the body to store fat. It is recommended that a person consumes food that helps sustain an even level of blood-sugar. Additionally, progressive execerise 2-3 times a week should be in order to stabilize blood sugar.

4. Eat spicy foods. Hot cuisine with peppers can increase metabolism.

5. Sleep more. According to research, it is riskier for people who do not get enough sleep to gain weight. Also, muscles are regenerated during the last couple of hours of slumber.

6. Increase water intake. Water flushes out toxins that are produced whenever the body burns fat. Majority of bodily functions involves water, and lack of water causes the body system's operations to decrease its speed, and produces unneeded stress as a result.

7. Eat smaller meals. It is advisable to consume 4 to 6 small meals that are timed 2 to 3 hours apart.

8. Never skip meals. People tend to skip meals in order to lose weight, which is a big mistake since it slows down metabolism.

9. Plan meals in detail. Always prepare the right amount of food to be consumed at the designated intervals. Do not commit the mistake of eating meals in sporadic patterns.

9. Ditch the stress! Stress, be it physical or emotional, triggers the release of a steroid called cortisol, which decreases metabolism. Also, people tend to eat excessively when stressed.

10. Guzzle up on green tea. It can be used as a substitute for coffee. Tea has the ability to stimulate metabolism, and unlike coffee, it has no undesirable side effects when too much is consumed.

11. Include more energy foods in the diet, such as fruits and vegetables, beans and whole grains.

Achieving the desired body weight is never impossible if one has the determination and patience needed to stabilize the metabolism level, which plays an important role in weight loss. A person needs to realize that eating right and working out is not just a passing fancy, but a way of life.

Friday, July 12, 2013



Prostate is a glandular organ present only in males. It surrounds the neck of bladder & the first part of urethra and condributes a secretion to the semen. The gland is conical in shape and measures 3 cm in vertical diameter and 4 cm in transverse diameter.It has got five lobes anterior,posterior,two lateral and a median lobe.Since the first part of the urethra pass through it any lesion in the prostate will produce difficulty in passing urine.

Diseases of the prostate gland:-

1) Prostatitis:-

This is the inflamation of the prostate gland due to bacterial infection.

2) Benign enlargement of the prostate:-

This is a non cancerous tumour of the prostate seen after the age of 50. 3,Cancer of the prostate:-This is the 4th most common cause of death from malignant diseases in males.

Cancer of the prostate.

Cancer of the prostate is directly linked with the male sex hormones(androgens).If the levels of sex hormone increases the growth rate of cancer also increases.It is found that after the removel of testes there is marked reduction in the size of tumour.

Site of tumour:-

Prostate cancer is seen mainly in the posterior lobe.Non cancerous enlargement is seen in other lobes.

Changes in the gland in cancer:-

The gland becomes hard with irregular surface with loss of normal lobulation .Histologically prostate cancer is an adeno carcinoma(cancer of the epithelial cells in the gland)

Growth :-

Growth rate is very fast in prostate cancer .The tumour compresses the urethra and produce difficulty in urination.

Spread of tumour:-

Metastasis in cancer of prostate is very early.

1) Local spread:-

From the posterior lobe the cancer cells go to the lateral lobes and seminal vesicles.Tumour cells also move to the neck and base of the urinary bladder.

2) Lymphatic spread:-

Through the lymph vessels cancer cells reach the internal and external illiac group of lymph nodes.From there cells move to retroperitonial(Behind the peritonium) and mediastinal lymph nodes(in the chest)

3) Spread through the blood:-

Spread of cancer cells takeplace through the periprostatic venous plexus and reaches the vertebral veins while coughing and sneezing and finally enders the vertebral bodies of the lumbar vertebrae.

Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer:--

Signs and symptoms depend upon the stage of the cancer. The following symptoms may be seen.

1) No symptoms:-

Tumour is small and only in the posterior lobe. This is diagnosed accidentely.

2) Slight difficulty in urination:-

Here the tumour is enlarged and urethra is slightly compressed.Shortly there will be frequent urge for urination with difficult urination.

3) When the tumour spread to all nearby areas including neck of bladder and urethra there will be painful urination with bleeding.Urine comes drop by drop.

4) Retention of urine:-

When the urethra is completely compressed there will be retention of urine.This can lead to hydronephrosis, renal failure ect.In this condition patient may get convulsions due to renal failure and finally coma.

5) Signs of metastasis:-

Some patients come with the signs and symptoms of metastasis.

a) Lumbo sacral pain due to spread of cancer cells to lumbar and sacral vertebrae.

b) Fracture of spine due to cancerous growth in the spine.

c) Swelling, pain and fluid collection in the abdomen due to lesion in the abdomen.

d) Respiratory complaints due to cancer of mediastinal lymphnodes and lungs.

e) General weakness due to spread of cancer to different parts of the body.

f) Anaemia due to involment of bone marrow and increased destruction of RBCs.

Clinical examination :-

Includes per rectal examination to feel the prostate gland,palpation of abdomen to feel the swelling in kidneys and any tumours.Patient is examined from head to foot to find out any lesions.


1) Complete blood investigations;-

RBC,WBC,Platlets,ESR,bleeding time ,clotting time ect.

2) Urine analysis:-

Microscopic examination to detect pus cells,occult blood,casts,Crystals ect.

3) Renal function tests:-

Blood urea level,serum creatinine level,electrolyte level ect.

4) Serum acid phosphatase:-

Increased in cancer of prostate.

5) x-ray of the spine:-

To detect any tumour or fracture.

6) Ultra sonography;-

Gives idea about prostate,bladder,kidney ect.

7) C T scan:-

More detailed information about organs and tumour.

8) MRI of the spine:-

Gives detailed information about spine ,disc and nearby soft tissues.

9) Lymphangiography:-

Gives idea about lymphatic spread of cancer.

10) Biopsy to confirm cancer:-

Biopsy is taken from the tumour and is send for histopathological examination under the microscope.This will detect the presence of cancer cells.


1) If there is retention of urine catheterisation is needed.
2) Dialysis if kidney failure.
3) If there is coma monitoring of all vital functions along with parentral nutrition and electolyte supply.
4) Specific treatment is prostatectomy(removal of prostate)

Partial prostatectomy :-

Here only the affected lobe is removed.

Radical prostatectomy :-

Total removal of prostate along with nearby lymphnodes.

5, Hormone therapy :-

Stilbestrol is given to reduce tumour growth.Since this treatement increases the chance for cardiovascular disease phosphorylated diethyle stilbesterol is used nowadays.

6) Chemotherapy:-Drugs like cyclophosphamide, cisoplatim ect are given.

7) Radiotherapy is also done for some cases.

8) Homoeopathy:-

Homoeopathic drugs like carcinocin, conium, sabal, crotalus, thuja, iodum, selinium, staphysagria, sulphur ect can be given according to symptoms.Constitutional homoeopathic medicine will give great relief and can increase the life span.

9) Yoga and meditation is also healpful.

Wednesday, July 10, 2013


What is piles ?

Dilatation of radicles of rectal veins within the anal canal is called piles.The medical term for piles is hemorrhoids.Compared to arteries veins are weak due to thin walls and hence any backpressure in the veins can make them tortuous.There are three rectal veins namely superior, middle and inferior rectal veins.Any obstructions or increase of pressure in these veins can predispose piles.

Depending upon the situation there are two types of piles.

1) External piles. 2) Internal piles.

1) External piles:-

This type of piles is seen outside the anal opening and is covered by skin.It is black or brown in colour.This type of piles is very painful due to rich nerve supply in this area.

2) Internal piles:-

It is inside the anal canal and internal to the anal orifice.It is covered by mucous membrane and is red or purple in colour.These piles are painless.

Some times internal and external piles occure in same individual.

Factors responsible for piles:--

1) This is a familial disease.

2) Piles is seen only in animals maintain an erect posture. This is due to congestion in the rectal veins due to the effect of gravity.

3) It is common in individuals having chronic constipation.Those who have a habit of visiting the toilet due to frequent urge for stool may develop piles in future.

4) Piles is common in those who take excess of chicken, prawns, spicy food ect.Those who take vegetables and fibrous food are rarely affected.

5) Some ladies get piles during pregnancy due to compression of rectal veins by the uterus.

6) Cancerous lesions in the rectum can obstruct blood flow and result in piles.

Signs and symptoms of piles:--

1) Pain:-

Pain is common in external piles which will be worse while straining at stool.

2) Bleeding:-

Bleeding comes in splashes while pressing for stool.Bleeding may be profuse in some cases.

3) Protruding mass:-

In external piles the swelling can be felt around the anal orifice.In case of internal piles initially it can not be felt.When the disease progresses the piles protrude during stool and will go inside automatically.When the condition becomes worse the protruded piles will not go back in to the anus.

4) In some cases there will be discharge of mucus with itching around the anal orifice.

Complications of piles:--

1,Infection: The infection can spread to deep veins resulting in septicaemia.
2,Fibrosis: Here the piles become fibrosed with hardening of anal orifice.
3,Thrombosis: Here the blood inside the piles will form clots and can obstruct blood flow.
4,Gangrene: Here the tissues in the piles and nearby skin die due to lack of blood supply.
5,Suppuration: When the piles suppurate it can produce abscess with discharge of pus.

Treatment of piles:--

Initially it is treated on the basis of symptoms.Constipation should be treated.If there is anaemia iron should be give.Homoeopathic medicines can give good results. If medicinal treatment is not giving any result the following can be tried.

1) The thrombosed external pile is excised under local anaesthesia.

2) Sclerosant injection therapy can reduce the size of piles.

3) Rubber band ligation around the neck of piles is useful in some cases.

4) Cryosurgery is very effective.

5) Anal dilatation can reduce constipation and pain.

6) Haemorrhoidectomy is the surgical removal of piles.

How to prevent piles?

1) Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.

2) Take fibrous food.

3) Avoid excess intake of meat,prawns,crabs ect.

4) Keep a regular timing for food.

6) Drink sufficient quantity of water.

7) Keep a regularity in bowel habits.

8) Take treatment for constipation.

Tuesday, July 9, 2013



The nails are present at the end of each finger tip on the dorsal surface.The main function of nail is protection and it also helps for a firm grip for holding articles.It consists of a strong relatively flexible keratinous nail plate originating from the nail matrix. Under the nail plate there is a soft tissue called nail bed.Between the skin and nail plate there is a nail fold or cuticle.Normal healthy nail is slight pink in colour and the surface is convex from side to side.Finger nails grow 1 cm in three months and toe nails take 24 months for the same.

Importance of nails in disease diagnosis:

The colour ,appearance,shape and nature of the nails give some information about the general health and hygiene of a person . Nails are examined as a routine by all doctors to get some clues about underlying diseases.Just looking at nails we can makeout the hygiene of a person.The abnormal nail may be congenital or due to some diseases.The cause for changes in the nail extend from simple reasons to life threatening diseases.Hence the examination by a doctor is essential for diagnosis .Some abnormal findings with probable causes are discussed here for general awareness.

1) Hygiene:-

We can make out an unhygienic nail very easily .Deposition of dirt under the distal end of nail plate can make a chance for ingestion of pathogens while eating.If nail cutting is not done properly it can result in worm troubles in children.When the worms crawl in the anal orifice children will scratch which lodges the ova of worms under the nails and will be taken in while eating.Prominent nail can also complicate a skin disease by habitual scratching.Sharp nails in small kids cause small wounds when they do feet kicking or hand waving.

2) Colour of the nails:-

a) Nails become pale in anaemia.

b) Opaque white discolouration(leuconychia) is seen in chronic renal failure and nephrotic syndrome.

c) Whitening is also seen in hypoalbuminaemia as in cirrhosis and kidney disorders.

d) Drugs like sulpha group,anti malarial and antibiotics ect can produce discolouration in the nails.

e) Fungal infection causes black discolouration.

f) In pseudomonas infection nails become black or green.

g) Nail bed infarction occures in vasculitis especially in SLE and polyarteritis.

h) Red dots are seen in nails due to splinter haemorrhages in subacute bacterial endo carditis, rheumatoid arthritis, trauma, collagen vascular diseases.

i) Blunt injury produces haemorrhage and causes blue/black discolouration.

j) Nails become brown in kidney diseases and in decreased adrenal activity.

k) In wilsons disease blue colour in semicircle appears in the nail.

l) When the blood supply decreases nail become yellow .In jaundice and psoriasis also nail become yellowish.

m) In yellow nail syndrome all nails become yellowish with pleural effusion.

3) Shape of nails:-

a) Clubbing: Here tissues at the base of nails are thickened and the angle between the nail base and the skin is obliterated. The nail becomes more convex and the finger tip becomes bulbous and looks like an end of a drumstick. When the condition becomes worse the nail looks like a parrot beak.

Causes of clubbing:-

Congenital Injuries

Severe chronic cyanosis

Lung diseases like empyema,bronchiactesis,carcinoma of bronchus and pulmonary tuberculosis.
Abdominal diseases like crohn's disease,polyposis of colon,ulcerative colitis,liver cirrhosis ect...

Heart diseases like fallot's tetralogy,subacute bacterial endocarditis and ect..

b) Koilonychia:-

Here the nails become concave like a spoon.This condition is seen in iron deficiency anaemia.In this condition the nails become thin,soft and brittle.The normal convexity will be replaced by concavity.

c) Longitudinal ridging is seen in raynaud's disease.

d) Cuticle becomes ragged in dermatomyositis.

e) Nail fold telangiectasia is a sign in dermatomyositis ,systemic sclerosis and SLE.

4) Structure and consistancy:-

a) Fungal infection of nail causes discolouration,deformity,hypertrophy and abnormal brittleness.

b) Thimble pitting of nail is charecteristic of psoriasis ,acute eczema and alopecia aereata.

c) The inflamation of cuticle or nail fold is called paronychia.

d) Onycholysis is the seperation of nail bed seen in psoriasis,infection and after taking tetracyclines.

e) Destruction of nail is seen in lichen planus,epidermolysis bullosa.

f) Missing nail is seen in nail patella syndrome.It is a hereditary disease.

g) Nails become brittle in raynauds disease and gangrene.

h) Falling of nail is seen in fungal infection,psoriasis and thyroid diseases.

5) Growth:-

Reduction in blood supply affects the growth of nails. Nail growth is also affected in severe ilness. when the disease disappears the growth starts again resulting in formation of transverse ridges.These lines are called Beau's lines and are healpful to date the onset of illness.

Monday, July 8, 2013


The physical disasters that follow the continued use of intoxicating beverages are sad enough, and terrible enough; but the surely attendant mental, moral and spiritual disasters are sadder and more terrible still. If you disturb the healthy condition of the brain, which is the physical organ through which the mind acts, you disturb the mind. It will not have the same clearness of perception as before; nor have the same rational control over the impulses and passions.

Heavenly order in the body.

In order to understand a subject clearly, certain general laws, or principles, must be seen and admitted. And here we assume, as a general truth, that health in the human body is normal heavenly order on the physical plane of life, and that any disturbance of that order exposes the man to destructive influences, which are evil and infernal in their character. Above the natural and physical plane, and resting upon it, while man lives in this world, is the mental and spiritual plane, or degree of life. This degree is in heavenly order when the reason is clear, and the appetites and passions under its wise control. But, if, through any cause, this fine equipoise is disturbed, or lost, then a way is opened for the influx of more subtle evil influences than such as invade the body, because they have power to act upon the reason and the passions, obscuring the one and inflaming the others.

We know how surely the loss of bodily health results in mental disturbance. If the seat of disease be remote from the brain, the disturbance is usually slight; but it increases as the trouble comes nearer and nearer to that organ, and shows itself in multiform ways according to character, temperament or inherited disposition; but almost always in a predominance of what is evil instead of good. There will be fretfulness, or ill-nature, or selfish exactions, or mental obscurity, or unreasoning demands, or, it may be, vicious and cruel propensities, where, when the brain was undisturbed by disease, reason held rule with patience and loving kindness. If the disease which has attacked the brain goes on increasing, the mental disease which follows as a consequence of organic disturbance or deterioration, will have increased also, until insanity may be established in some one or more of its many sad and varied forms.


It is, therefore, a very serious thing for a man to take into his body any substance which, on reaching that wonderfully delicate organ the brain, sets up therein a diseased action; for, diseased mental action is sure to follow. A fever is a fever, whether it be light or intensely burning; and so any disturbance of the mind's rational equipoise is insanity, whether it be in the simplest form of temporary obscurity, or in the midnight of a totally darkened intellect.

We are not writing in the interest of any special theory, nor in the spirit of partisanship; but with an earnest desire to make the truth appear. You must not accept anything simply because we say it, but because he sees it to be true. Now, as to this matter of insanity, let him think calmly. The word is one that gives us a shock; and, as we hear it, we almost involuntarily thank God for the good gift of a well-balanced mind. What, if from any cause this beautiful equipoise should be disturbed and the mind lose its power to think clearly, or to hold the lower passions in due control? Shall we exceed the truth if we say that the man in whom this takes place is insane just in the degree that he has lost his rational self-control; and that he is restored when he regains that control?

In this view, the question as to the hurtfulness of alcoholic drinks assumes a new and graver aspect. Do they disturb the brain when they come in contact with its substance; and deteriorate it if the contact be long continued? Fact, observation, experience and scientific investigation all emphatically say yes; and we know that if the brain be disordered the mind, will be disordered, likewise; and a disordered mind is an insane mind. Clearly, then, in the degree that a man impairs or hurts his brain temporarily or continuously in that degree his mind is unbalanced; in that degree he is not a truly rational and sane man.

We are holding your thought just here that you may have time to think, and to look at the question in the light of reason and common sense. So far as he does this, will he be able to feel the force of such evidence as we shall educe in what follows, and to comprehend its true meaning.

Other substances besides alcohol act injuriously on the brain; but there is none that compares with this in the extent, variety and diabolical aspect of the mental aberrations which follow its use. We are not speaking thoughtlessly or wildly; but simply uttering a truth well-known to every man of observation, and which every man, and especially those who take this substance in any form, should, lay deeply to heart. Why it is that such awful and destructive forms of insanity should follow, as they do, the use of alcohol it is not for us to say. That they do follow it, we know, and we hold, up the fact in solemn warning.

Another consideration, which should have weight with every one, is this, that no man can tell what may be the character of the legacy he has received from his ancestors. He may have an inheritance of latent evil forces, transmitted through many generations, which only await some favoring opportunity to spring into life and action. So long as he maintains a rational self-control, and the healthy order of his life be not disturbed, they may continue quiescent; but if his brain loses its equipoise, or is hurt or impaired, then a diseased psychical condition may be induced and the latent evil forces be quickened into life.

Sunday, July 7, 2013


Dr. Ezra M. Hunt says: "The capacity of the alcohols for impairment of functions and the initiation and promotion of organic lesions in vital parts, is unsurpassed by any record in the whole range of medicine. The facts as to this are so indisputable, and so far granted by the profession, as to be no longer debatable . Changes in stomach and liver, in kidneys and lungs, in the blood-vessels to the minutest capillary, and in the blood to the smallest red and white blood disc disturbances of secretion, fibroid and fatty degenerations in almost every organ, impairment of muscular power, impressions so profound on both nervous systems as to be often toxic these, and such as these, are the oft manifested results. And these are not confined to those called intemperate."

Professor Youmans says: "It is evident that, so far from being the conservator of health, alcohol is an active and powerful cause of disease, interfering, as it does, with the respiration, the circulation and the nutrition; now, is any other result possible?"

Dr. F.R. Lees says: "That alcohol should contribute to the fattening process under certain conditions, and produce in drinkers fatty degeneration of the blood, follows, as a matter of course, since, on the one hand, we have an agent that retains waste matter by lowering the nutritive and excretory functions, and on the other, a direct poisoner of the vesicles of the vital stream."

Dr. Henry Monroe says: "There is no kind of tissue, whether healthy or morbid, that may not undergo fatty degeneration; and there is no organic disease so troublesome to the medical man, or so difficult of cure. If, by the aid of the microscope, we examine a very fine section of muscle taken from a person in good health, we find the muscles firm, elastic and of a bright red color, made up of parallel fibres, with beautiful crossings or striae; but, if we similarly examine the muscle of a man who leads an idle, sedentary life, and indulges in intoxicating drinks, we detect, at once, a pale, flabby, inelastic, oily appearance. Alcoholic narcotization appears to produce this peculiar conditions of the tissues more than any other agent with which we are acquainted. 'Three-quarters of the chronic illness which the medical man has to treat,' says Dr. Chambers, 'are occasioned by this disease.' The eminent French analytical chemist, Lecanu, found as much as one hundred and seventeen parts of fat in one thousand parts of a drunkard's blood, the highest estimate of the quantity in health being eight and one-quarter parts, while the ordinary quantity is not more than two or three parts, so that the blood of the drunkard contains forty times in excess of the ordinary quantity."

Dr. Hammond, who has written, in partial defense of alcohol as containing a food power, says: "When I say that it, of all other causes, is most prolific in exciting derangements of the brain, the spinal cord and the nerves, I make a statement which my own experience shows to be correct."

Another eminent physician says of alcohol: "It substitutes suppuration for growth. It helps time to produce the effects of age; and, in a word, is the genius of degeneration."

Dr. Monroe, from whom "Alcohol, taken in small quantities, or largely diluted, as in the form of beer, causes the stomach gradually to lose its tone, and makes it dependent upon artificial stimulus. Atony, or want of tone of the stomach, gradually supervenes, and incurable disorder of health results. Should a dose of alcoholic drink be taken daily, the heart will very often become hypertrophied, or enlarged throughout. Indeed, it is painful to witness how many persons are actually laboring under disease of the heart, owing chiefly to the use of alcoholic liquors."

Dr. T.K. Chambers, physician to the Prince of Wales, says: "Alcohol is really the most ungenerous diet there is. It impoverishes the blood, and there is no surer road to that degeneration of muscular fibre so much to be feared; and in heart disease it is more especially hurtful, by quickening the beat, causing capillary congestion and irregular circulation, and thus mechanically inducing dilatation."

Sir Henry Thompson, a distinguished surgeon, says: "Don't take your daily wine under any pretext of its doing you good. Take it frankly as a luxury one which must be paid for, by some persons very lightly, by some at a high price, but always to be paid for. And, mostly, some loss of health, or of mental power, or of calmness of temper, or of judgment, is the price."

Dr. Charles Jewett says: "The late Prof. Parks, of England, in his great work on Hygiene, has effectually disposed of the notion, long and very generally entertained, that alcohol is a valuable prophylactic where a bad climate, bad water and other conditions unfavorable to health, exist; and an unfortunate experiment with the article, in the Union army, on the banks of the Chickahominy, in the year 1863, proved conclusively that, instead of guarding the human constitution against the influence of agencies hostile to health, its use gives to them additional force. The medical history of the British army in India teaches the same lesson."

But why present farther testimony? Is not the evidence complete? To the man who values good health; who would not lay the foundation for disease and suffering in his later years, we need not offer a single additional argument in favor of entire abstinence from alcoholic drinks. He will eschew them as poisons.