Saturday, June 22, 2013


The parts which first suffer from alcohol are those expansions of the body which the anatomists call the membranes. "The skin is a membranous envelope. Through the whole of the alimentary surface, from the lips downward, and through the bronchial passages to their minutest ramifications, extends the mucous membrane. The lungs, the heart, the liver, the kidneys are folded in delicate membranes, which can be stripped easily from these parts. If you take a portion of bone, you will find it easy to strip off from it a membranous sheath or covering; if you examine a joint, you will find both the head and the socket lined with membranes. The whole of the intestines are enveloped in a fine membrane called peritoneum . All the muscles are enveloped in membranes, and the fasciculi, or bundles and fibres of muscles, have their membranous sheathing. The brain and spinal cord are enveloped in three membranes; one nearest to themselves, a pure vascular structure, a network of blood-vessels; another, a thin serous structure; a third, a strong fibrous structure. The eyeball is a structure of colloidal humors and membranes, and of nothing else. To complete the description, the minute structures of the vital organs are enrolled in membranous matter."

These membranes are the filters of the body. "In their absence there could be no building of structure, no solidification of tissue, nor organic mechanism. Passive themselves, they, nevertheless, separate all structures into their respective positions and adaptations."

Membranous deteriorations.

In order to make perfectly clear to your mind the action and use of these membranous expansions, and the way in which alcohol deteriorates them, and obstructs their work, we quote again from Dr. Richardson:

"The animal receives from the vegetable world and from the earth the food and drink it requires for its sustenance and motion. It receives colloidal food for its muscles: combustible food for its motion; water for the solution of its various parts; salt for constructive and other physical purposes. These have all to be arranged in the body; and they are arranged by means of the membranous envelopes. Through these membranes nothing can pass that is not, for the time, in a state of aqueous solution, like water or soluble salts. Water passes freely through them, salts pass freely through them, but the constructive matter of the active parts that is colloidal does not pass; it is retained in them until it is chemically decomposed into the soluble type of matter. When we take for our food a portion of animal flesh, it is first resolved, in digestion, into a soluble fluid before it can be absorbed; in the blood it is resolved into the fluid colloidal condition; in the solids it is laid down within the membranes into new structure, and when it has played its part, it is digested again, if I may so say, into a crystalloidal soluble substance, ready to be carried away and replaced by addition of new matter, then it is dialysed or passed through, the membranes into the blood, and is disposed of in the excretions.

"See, then, what an all-important part these membranous structures play in the animal life. Upon their integrity all the silent work of the building up of the body depends. If these membranes are rendered too porous, and let out the colloidal fluids of the blood the albumen, for example the body so circumstanced, dies; dies as if it were slowly bled to death. If, on the contrary, they become condensed or thickened, or loaded with foreign material, then they fail to allow the natural fluids to pass through them. They fail to dialyse, and the result is, either an accumulation of the fluid in a closed cavity, or contraction of the substance inclosed within the membrane, or dryness of membrane in surfaces that ought to be freely lubricated and kept apart. In old age we see the effects of modification of membrane naturally induced; we see the fixed joint, the shrunken and feeble muscle, the dimmed eye, the deaf ear, the enfeebled nervous function.

"It may possibly seem, at first sight, that I am leading immediately away from the subject of the secondary action of alcohol. It is not so. I am leading directly to it. Upon all these membranous structures alcohol exerts a direct perversion of action. It produces in them a thickening, a shrinking and an inactivity that reduces their functional power. That they may work rapidly and equally, they require to be at all times charged with water to saturation. If, into contact with them, any agent is brought that deprives them of water, then is their work interfered with; they cease to separate the saline constituents properly; and, if the evil that is thus started, be allowed to continue, they contract upon their contained matter in whatever organ it may be situated, and condense it.

"In brief, under the prolonged influence of alcohol those changes which take place from it in the blood corpuscles, extend to the other organic parts, involving them in structural deteriorations, which are always dangerous, and are often ultimately fatal."

Friday, June 21, 2013


Dr. Richardson, in his lectures on alcohol, given both in England and America, speaking of the action of this substance on the blood after passing from the stomach, says:

"Suppose, then, a certain measure of alcohol be taken into the stomach, it will be absorbed there, but, previous to absorption, it will have to undergo a proper degree of dilution with water, for there is this peculiarity respecting alcohol when it is separated by an animal membrane from a watery fluid like the blood, that it will not pass through the membrane until it has become charged, to a given point of dilution, with water. It is itself, in fact, so greedy for water, it will pick it up from watery textures, and deprive them of it until, by its saturation, its power of reception is exhausted , after which it will diffuse into the current of circulating fluid."

It is this power of absorbing water from every texture with which alcoholic spirits comes in contact, that creates the burning thirst of those who freely indulge in its use. Its effect, when it reaches the circulation, is thus described by Dr. Richardson:

"As it passes through the circulation of the lungs it is exposed to the air, and some little of it, raised into vapor by the natural heat, is thrown off in expiration. If the quantity of it be large, this loss may be considerable, and the odor of the spirit may be detected in the expired breath. If the quantity be small, the loss will be comparatively little, as the spirit will be held in solution by the water in the blood. After it has passed through the lungs, and has been driven by the left heart over the arterial circuit, it passes into what is called the minute circulation, or the structural circulation of the organism. The arteries here extend into very small vessels, which are called arterioles, and from these infinitely small vessels spring the equally minute radicals or roots of the veins, which are ultimately to become the great rivers bearing the blood back to the heart. In its passage through this minute circulation the alcohol finds its way to every organ. To this brain, to these muscles, to these secreting or excreting organs, nay, even into this bony structure itself, it moves with the blood. In some of these parts which are not excreting, it remains for a time diffused, and in those parts where there is a large percentage of water, it remains longer than in other parts. From some organs which have an open tube for conveying fluids away, as the liver and kidneys, it is thrown out or eliminated, and in this way a portion of it is ultimately removed from the body. The rest passing round and round with the circulation, is probably decomposed and carried off in new forms of matter.

"When we know the course which the alcohol takes in its passage through the body, from the period of its absorption to that of its elimination, we are the better able to judge what physical changes it induces in the different organs and structures with which it comes in contact. It first reaches the blood; but, as a rule, the quantity of it that enters is insufficient to produce any material effect on that fluid. If, however, the dose taken be poisonous or semi-poisonous, then even the blood, rich as it is in water and it contains seven hundred and ninety parts in a thousand is affected. The alcohol is diffused through this water, and there it comes in contact with the other constituent parts, with the fibrine, that plastic substance which, when blood is drawn, clots and coagulates, and which is present in the proportion of from two to three parts in a thousand; with the albumen which exists in the proportion of seventy parts; with the salts which yield about ten parts; with the fatty matters; and lastly, with those minute, round bodies which float in myriads in the blood (which were discovered by the Dutch philosopher, Leuwenhock, as one of the first results of microscopical observation, about the middle of the seventeenth century), and which are called the blood globules or corpuscles. These last-named bodies are, in fact, cells; their discs, when natural, have a smooth outline, they are depressed in the centre, and they are red in color; the color of the blood being derived from them. We have discovered that there exist other corpuscles or cells in the blood in much smaller quantity, which are called white cells, and these different cells float in the blood-stream within the vessels. The red take the centre of the stream; the white lie externally near the sides of the vessels, moving less quickly. Our business is mainly with the red corpuscles. They perform the most important functions in the economy; they absorb, in great part, the oxygen which we inhale in breathing, and carry it to the extreme tissues of the body; they absorb, in great part, the carbonic acid gas which is produced in the combustion of the body in the extreme tissues, and bring that gas back to the lungs to be exchanged for oxygen there; in short, they are the vital instruments of the circulation.

"With all these parts of the blood, with the water, fibrine, albumen, salts, fatty matter and corpuscles, the alcohol comes in contact when it enters the blood, and, if it be in sufficient quantity, it produces disturbing action. I have watched this disturbance very carefully on the blood corpuscles; for, in some animals we can see these floating along during life, and we can also observe them from men who are under the effects of alcohol, by removing a speck of blood, and examining it with the microscope. The action of the alcohol, when it is observable, is varied. It may cause the corpuscles to run too closely together, and to adhere in rolls; it may modify their outline, making the clear-defined, smooth, outer edge irregular or crenate, or even starlike; it may change the round corpuscle into the oval form, or, in very extreme cases, it may produce what I may call a truncated form of corpuscles, in which the change is so great that if we did not trace it through all its stages, we should be puzzled to know whether the object looked at were indeed a blood-cell. All these changes are due to the action of the spirit upon the water contained in the corpuscles; upon the capacity of the spirit to extract water from them. During every stage of modification of corpuscles thus described, their function to absorb and fix gases is impaired, and when the aggregation of the cells, in masses, is great, other difficulties arise, for the cells, united together, pass less easily than they should through the minute vessels of the lungs and of the general circulation, and impede the current, by which local injury is produced.

"A further action upon the blood, instituted by alcohol in excess, is upon the fibrine or the plastic colloidal matter. On this the spirit may act in two different ways, according to the degree in which it affects the water that holds the fibrine in solution. It may fix the water with the fibrine, and thus destroy the power of coagulation; or it may extract the water so determinately as to produce coagulation."

Cross Training for Fitness and Fatloss

The numbers on your scale do not indicate whether you are fit or fat. Far more significant than your total body weight is the composition of your body tissue. If a mans fatty tissue is bigger than 14% up to 15% of his body mass, or if a womans is more than 20% to 22%, he or she is overweight, or more precisely, overfat.

A small amount of fat is needed for padding the internal organs and as insulation under the skin. Excess fat leads to such diseases as diabetes, gout, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and gallbladder problems. There are very few, very fat persons. The reason is that the fittest, not the fattest survive.

The problem now is focused on how to resolve the problem. The problem with most people who want to lose weight is that they have the propensity to concentrate more on getting those numbers lower than what they are seeing now. What happens next is that they strive harder to achieve a lower weight, according to the ever reliable result of the weighing scale.

It would be more important to think of the human body as a heat-exchange engine that works on the basic principles of energy physics. The caloric balance equals the total calorie intake minus the total calorie expenditure.

Some of the calories people ingest are used for basal metabolism. As people get old, their bodies require fewer calories for this basic upkeep. Some calories are excreted as waste products. Some go into work metabolism, the energy expenditure required for any physical activity.

Hence, if people take in more calories than are used by these functions, there is a definite caloric excess. By the laws of physics, energy is transformed rather than destroyed. In this case, each excess of 3,500 calories is changed into a pound of fat. If people want to reverse this process, they have to burn up 3,500 calories to lose a single pound.

Winning the War Against Fat

When you think of fighting fat with exercise, you probably think of hours of hard, sweaty exertion. If this is the case, then, you will not get any farther. This is because people who are so much into losing more by exerting more effort tend to get bored easily.

Why? Because experts contend that when people exert more effort than what they are capable of doing creates a tendency to develop weariness and ennui. Hence, they give up, stop doing their routine exercises, and end up sulking in the corner with a bag of chips that seems to have all the bad calories in this world.

Now, you might ask, "What should be done instead?" The answer: cross training.

After some intensive studies and experimentations, health experts were able to come up with the concept of incorporating cross training in order to overcome or break the monotony or dullness in an exercise program.

Cross training refers to the integration of diverse movements or activities into a persons conventional exercise routine. The main purpose of incorporating cross training into an exercise program is to avoid overdoing excess muscle damages and to put a stop to an imminent boredom.

Three of the most commonly used activities whenever a person decides to engage into cross training are swimming, running, and cycling.

In cross training, distance is one way to extend your activity as your condition improves. For this reason, you need to traverse a measured distance.

If possible, swim the course and measure the distance. If you will be using a running track, such courses usually are a quarter-mile per lap for a complete circuit.

Cross training offers a variety of benefits for fitness and fatloss. It builds up the strength and endurance of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. It has also some tranquilizing effect on the nerves, and it burns up calories as much as it makes your losing weight more bearable.

Cross training has three basic components:

1. Endurance exercises to condition the heart, lungs, and blood vessels and to induce relaxation. These begin with a careful planned walking and jogging regimen, depending on fitness level.

2. Exercises to strengthen the muscles, particularly those important to good posture. These include some activities that are selected to encourage some people who are already burnt out with a particular routine.

3. Exercises to improve joint mobility and prevent or relieve aches and pains. These consist of a series of static stretching positions that are safe and effective for most of the people who wish to try to lose some fat.

Indeed, cross training is a great way to modify the concept of exercising and losing fat without having to endure monotonous activities. In fact, the idea of exercising is to like what you are doing, hence, if you engage into cross training, you will be aware of it that you have already achieve your desired weight.

Boiled down, cross training is, certainly, one way of having fun.

Wednesday, June 19, 2013

Precautions to be taken while combing hair

Hair combing is a routine activity of almost all people.Some people keep a particular hair style throughout their life and some especially younger generation adopt new styles according to new trends and fashion.Hair styles has got close relation with the personality of a person.The hair of an unhygeinic person is usually tangled and dirty because of lack of washing and combing.To have a healthy scalp hair proper nutrition is needed.General health has got direct relation with the quality and quantity of hair.Regular washing,use of hair oil,proper combing ect are also needed to make the hair beautiful.General hints for combing is discussed here.

1) Different varieties of combs are available in the market.The best comb is selected by considering the nature of hair(hard or soft,long or short) ,style and convenience.

2) Combing should be done with utmost care and concentration.Some people especially gents think about some other matters and comb without any care which may be harmful to the hairs.

3) Combing should be gentle .A vigorous combing can increase hairfalling.

4) Do not comb if the hair is wet. First dry it with a towel and then put some oil and gently massage it.Now the combing will be easy and harmless.

5) Should not be combed in the opposite direction of hairs.This can increase hair falling.

6) Vigorous combing in backward direction can produce traction baldness.

7) Frequent combing can damage the scalp and the hair follicles.Those who carry pocket comb use it frequently and make it a habit.Combing two or three times in a day is sufficient.

8) The tooth of the comb should not be sharp and it should not be pressed too tightly on the scalp.

9) Always clean the comb before and after use because hair and dirt deposited in the gap will make combing diffucult and painful.

10) Others comb should not be used.This helps to prevent fungal and bacterial infections.Head lice can also spread from one person to other by sharing the combs.

11) Combing the tangled hair is difficult and painful.Hence use some shampoo for cleaning and after drying put oil and make the hairs free for an easy combing.


It is a non progressive neuromuscular disorder causing mild to severe disabilities throughout life.This condition is manifested as a group of persisting qualitative motor disorders which appear in young children due to damage to the brain during delivery or due to some pathological conditions in the intrauterine life.The neuroligical problems are multiple but non progressive in nature.Approximately 2 per 100 live birth is having this problem.This disease is having no hereditary tendency.

Causes of cerebral palsy:

1) Injury to the brain during delivery.

2) As a complication of forceps delivery.

3) Lack of oxygen supply to the baby during delivery.

4) Infections during delivery.

Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy:--

The signs and symptoms may not be similar in all babies affected.Depending upon the damage to the brain there may be mild to severe lesions.

Mild cases:- 20% children will have mild disability.

Moderate cases:-50% cases are having moderate disability.The affected children require self help for assisting their impaired ambulation capacity.

Severe cases:-About 30% of the affected children are totally incapacited and bedridden and they allways need care from others.

Abnormal findings in cerebral palsy:-

1,Abnormal neonatal reflexes.

2,Stiffness of all muscles with awkward motion.
3,Extention of extremities on vertical suspension of the infant.

4,Scissoring of the lower limbs due to spasm of the adductor muscles of the thigh.

5,In severe cases the back bend backwards like and arch.

6,May have total or partial paralysis.

7,Arrest of neurological and behavioral developement.

8,Swallowing may be difficult in some cases.

9,Drooling of saliva.

10,Mild to severe mental retardations.

11,Abnormal movements are seen in some cases.

12,Tremors with typical movements.

13,If cerebellum is affected there will be loss of muscle tone with difficulty in walking.

14,Complete or partial loss of hearing.

15,Speech may be affected.

16,Squint and other visual problems may be associated.

17,Convulsions may be seen in some children.

Cerebral palsy is diagnosed by detailed clinical examination and by eliminating other similar diseases like brain tumour, progressive atrophy ect.All investigations like CT scan,MRI and routine investigations are needed to ruleout other diseases.

Management of carebral palsy:--

General management:

This includes proper nutrition and personal care. Symptomatic medicines are needed to reduce convulsions and muscle stiffness. Diazepam can reduce spasticity and athetosis.
Dantrolene sodium helps to relax skeletal muscles.


Here massage,exercise, hydrotherapy and ect are needed.Special training is given to train walking,swallowing and talking.The affected children are also trained to hold articles for routine activities.


Moral and social support should be given to these children.They should be send to special schools where special training can be given by trained staff.Mentally retarded children need special training.Depending up on the disabitity special instruments and machines are given for locomotion and to assist their daytoday activities.

Occupational therapy:

This is given by occupational therapists.They train the disabled people to do some suitable works so that these people can have their own income.

Monday, June 17, 2013

Benefits of Whey Protein

In recent years, the subject of whey protein has come up often in health discussions. Know what whey protein is, its possible benefits and side effects and more as you read on.
What is Whey Protein
Whey protein is actually a term used to describe a group of globular proteins that can be separated from whey. When cows milk is used to manufacture cheese, it also leads to the production of whey, which may or may not be discarded. It is a mixture of lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin and serum albumin.
Similar to protein found in egg white, whey protein can also be irreversibly changed by heat. When made part of the pasteurization process, it becomes less bio-active. If not, whey protein naturally becomes bio-active which basically means it contains a high concentration of cysteine and consequently glutathione, an antioxidant that is essential to improved fitness and health.
Bio-active whey protein is an active source for protein but exposure to extreme heat can easily reduce the amount of cysteine in it without affecting its protein content and basic food value. Native whey protein
What Makes It Good for the Body
Because whey protein contains an inordinate amount of essential and non-essential acids, it frequently plays a prominent role in most low-carb and high-protein diets. Another reason for this is because of its low content of fats and of course, carbohydrates.

Why Pregnant Mothers Love Whey Protein
A number of OBs have advised their gravid patients to increase their intake of whey protein because it will provide the basic amount of amino acids needed by the growing infants inside their bodies. An increased intake of whey protein will naturally improve and speed up the development of the baby. Also, increased intake of whey protein will indirectly improve the immune system of the baby. In its growing stages, it is highly vulnerable to different types of illnesses. With the help of whey protein, it grow faster and better and more equipped to defend itself against any health complication.

Whey Protein for Bodybuilding Enthusiasts
For bodybuilders, muscle growth is everything and thats why they love whey protein so much. Studies have satisfactorily proven that whey protein can lead to acceleration of muscle development. This is welcomed news especially for bodybuilders who are only a few weeks away from the date of competition but is still in high need of muscle growth.

How it Helps Athletes Busy Recovering from Old Injuries
In this case, whey protein saves the day once more because it can be used to supplement diets of individuals who are suffering from compromised immune systems. Basically, it helps athletes heal faster and feel better.

A Weapon against Degenerative Diseases
Although you cant truly say that any disease is less painful than the other if both have life-altering consequences, it is an inarguable fact however that degenerative diseases are one of the worst health complications to suffer from. These illnesses tend to subject people to a protracted form of suffering and with symptoms with increasing levels of severity. They commonly affect three systems in particular: the nervous system, the muscular system and the skeletal system.

Although rarely curable, degenerative diseases can be treated through chemotherapy, surgical operations and the proper diet. Whey protein is often a part of this diet because of its rehabilitative benefits especially when it comes to muscle growth. Cancer, diabetes and AIDS have symptoms that causes muscle strength and growth to deteriorate an undesirable effect that can be combated with increased intake of whey protein.

Where to Buy Whey Protein
Are you sufficiently convinced of the benefits of whey protein then? If so, you should be happy to know that you can avail of commercial whey protein product in most supermarkets and specialty food stores specializing in healthy food.

Ending with a Warning
Whey protein is good for the body no doubt about it but too much consumption of anything is never beneficial. Too much intake of whey protein can lead to unnecessary complications of your liver. And need we remind you that the liver is the next most important organ in the body? Lastly, lactose intolerant individuals must consume whey protein isolate rather than the normal variety as the former has less lactose content.

Sunday, June 16, 2013

Benefits of Using a Stability Ball in Your Training

If there is one equipment you should not miss in your training, it is the stability ball. The market comes up with new training tools every now and then. Yet you are not sure if they do work and if they are safe. So for one that is guaranteed to work, use the stability ball.

What Is a Stability Ball?

This is a large and inflatable ball used as an exercise equipment. Despite being air-filled, it is generally heavy-duty and capable to hold 600 to 700 pounds of weight. It is comfortable and gives good support. It perfectly suits the trainee as it easily goes with the structure of the body.

This exercise tool is also sometimes called as the physioball or the Swiss Ball.

The good thing about using the stability ball is it reduces the perception of working in training, especially for beginners. It gives some element of play as you get rough with the training. It adds some fun and excitement as you advance in the movements and techniques.

Another good point with the ball is that it can be used by anybody. No fitness level is required. It is very portable and light weight, easy to bring along even when traveling. It is also inexpensive compared to other exercise equipment and it could last for a very long time.

How Stability Balls Came About?

The use of the stability balls for training can be traced in rehabilitation. As early as the 1900s, physical therapists have been using balls in addressing the neurological disorders of their patients.

Then, in the early 1960s, Aquilino Cosani, an Italian toy maker, made the ball and sold it, known then as the Gymnastik. Two decades after, Cosani came up with a company called Gymnic and became the major supplier of the stability ball to most rehabilitation programs and centers.

The ball then shifted from the rehabilitation to the athletic area, in the 90s. It was used to condition the body of professional athletes. From then on, the ball became very prominent in the fitness community.

At present medical specialists and fitness professionals very much recommend the use of the stability ball by the public. It serves more than solving physical problems. It is good in preventing you from having one.

What Are the Benefits of Using a Stability Ball?

The stability ball definitely is best to improve the strength of the abs and the lower-backs. It improves as well the functional strength, balance and flexibility of the body.

1. Proper Alignment
Using the ball during training will test the body to make use of the different parts to maintain the proper balance. The dynamic movements during exercise will improve the natural motor reflexes of the body as different muscles are utilized in movement, especially the ones that are not usually used. The challenge posed by the ball is to maintain balance. As one aims to get the proper balance, the alignment of the body parts is also improved.

2. Great Abs
For people working out to achieve great abs, this ball can definitely target the abdominal areas. The abs and the back muscles are simultaneously moved as you work in your balance. Just imagine the good feeling of having a flat stomach area and you will definitely love this ball.

3. Muscle Strength and Endurance
The stability ball can help in alleviating any back pain and preventing one in the future. As all the major muscle groups are exercised, the muscle tone, strength and endurance are also improved. Thus it gives the body flexibility, stability and resistance.

4. Core Stability
This concerns the major muscles that helps stabilize and support all of the body movements. This is made up of back and the deep abdominal muscles. With the ball, no matter how deep or into the core these muscles are, they are still exercised. This is something only the stability ball can guarantee.

5. Stretching
The ball is a good companion during stretching exercises. With this, you can easily move into and move out of different stretching positions.

6. Losing Weight
Of course, with all the good benefits of using the ball, you will not miss out on the aspect of losing weight. With regular exercises and trainings done with the stability ball, a person can lose some unwanted pounds as the body is firmed.

Health is definitely your most important asset. So do your regular exercises and maintain a healthy diet. Furthermore, have a happy and fun training with the stability ball.